Steuben County Town Histories
From “Historical Gazetteer of Steuben County, New York”
By Millard Fillmore Roberts, 1891


Town of Addison, originally a part of the old town of Painted Post, was organized as Middletown at the time of the organization of Steuben
County in March, 1796. The name was changed to Addison, in honor of Joseph Addison, the English author, on April 6,1808. The early settlers called it also “Tuscarora”. It is an interior town, situated southeast of the centre of the county, and lies upon both sides of the Canisteo river. It is bounded north by Thurston and a part of Campbell, east by Erwin, south by Tuscarora and west by Rathbone. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by the valley of the Canisteo and its branches. The principal valley is about one mile wide and is bordered by steep hillsides rising from three to four hundred feet. The chief streams are the Canisteo river, Tuscarora and Goodhue creeks. Goodhue lake, in the northwest corner of the town, covers an area of about fifty acres. The alluvial soil of the valleys is rich and productive; on the hills it is clay mixed with the debris of broken shale, and compares favorably with the average farming lands of the county. The population of the town in 1890 was 2,884.

 
Town of Avoca is situated northwest of the center of the county, and lies in the rich valley of the Conhocton river and upon the adjoining uplands. The valley is about a mile in width, and of a rich alluvial deposit. The course of the Conhocton through the town is from northwest to southeast. Ten-mile and Twelve-mile creeks enter it as tributaries from the north and Neils creek from the west. The hills rise in some places abruptly, but generally by a gradual ascent to a height of four hundred feet above the river. The soil upon the hills is chiefly gravel and clay, with a mixture of loam, making good, productive farming and, which is largely cleared and in a good state of cultivation. For its size it is one of the most productive and flourishing towns in the county. The township was formed from the towns of Bath, Cohocton, Howard and Wheeler, April 12, 1843. Up to that time the village of Avoca was included in the town of Bath. The population of the town of Avoca, according to the census of 1890, was 2,241.

 
Town of Bath is the central town of Steuben county. It is situated chiefly in Townships 3, 4 and 5 of Ranges 2, 3 and 4, and is bounded on
the north by the towns of Avoca, Wheeler and Urbana; on the east by Bradford; on the south by Campbell, Thurston and Cameron, and on the west by Avoca and Howard. It contains, according to the assessor's estimate, 57,100 acres of land. The assessed value of the real and personal estate in 1890 was $3,563,678, and the total tax $31,055. The total population by the last census (1890), was 7,359, of which one hundred and thirty-eight were colored.
The Conhocton river-the Ga-ha-to of the Senecas, meaning "log: in the water "-passes through the town from the northwest to the southeast.
Five Mile creek, Smith's Run and Mud creek-the latter the outlet of Mud lake-are affluents from the north; and several small streams pour down from the hills southwest, among which are Campbell and Stockton creeks. The Conhocton has eroded a deep valley some four hundred feet below the great plateau, which at Mt. Washington is 1,579 feet above tide water. This valley is intersected at Bath village by a broader one, extending from Lake Keuka.

 
Town of Bradford , named for Major Robert Bradford, was formed, from Jersey-now Orange, Schuyler county-April 20, 1836. A part
was annexed to Orange, April 17, 1854. It lies near the center of the east border of the county of Steuben. It is bounded north by the town of Wayne, east by Schuyler county, south by Campbell, and west by Bath and Urbana. The surface of the town is a hilly upland, broken by the
valley of Mud creek. Mud Lake is situated near the east border in Schuyler county; its surface is eleven hundred feet above tide, and the summits of the adjacent hills are several hundred feet above the lake. The soil is a gravelly and clayey loam, better adapted to pasturage than to tillage, generally; though the rich alluvium and sand of the valley produces excellent crops of corn and wheat. The population in 1890 was 757.

 
Town of Cameron was formed from Addison, April 16, 1822. Thurston was set off in 1814, and a part of Rathbone in 1856. It lies a little
south of the centre of the county. Its surface is a high, rolling upland, broken by the deep valley of the Canisteo river, which flows southeast through the town, south of its centre. The town was named for Dugald Cameron, an early settler of Bath, and afterward an agent for the Pulteney estate. It is bounded north by Bath, east by Thurston and a part of Rathbone, south by Rathbone and Woodhull, and west by Jasper and Canisteo. The soil is a clayey and gravelly loam, and is fairly productive, yielding good crops of grain and grass. The population of this town, as shown by the census of 1890, was 1,522.

 
Town of Campbell was formed from Hornby, April 15, 1831, and was named in honor of Rev. Robert Campbell, an early proprietor. It is an interior town, lying southwest of the centre of the county, bounded north by a portion of Bath and the town of Bradford, east by Hornby, south by Erwin and a part of Addison, and west by Thurston. Its surface consists of high, broken ridges, separated by the valleys of the streams. The declivities of the hills are generally steep, and their summits from three hundred to five hundred feet above the valleys. The Conhocton river flows southeast through the town, and its tributaries within the borders of the town are Wolf Run, McNutt Run, Mead's Creek, Dry Run and Stephens and Michigan-or Otter-creeks. The river valley is about a mile in width, and its soil is a rich alluvium. Upon the hills the soil is a clayey and
gravelly loam, fairly productive.

 
Town of Canisteo lies southwest of the center of the county, and is one of the original towns of Steuben, having been formed in March, 1796. As originally surveyed it was known as Township 3, Range 5, of the Phelps & Gorham purchase, an account of the first purchase of which is given in the history of the town of Homellsville, which was originally a part of Canisteo. In 1808 a portion of the town was annexed to
Troupsburgh, Hornellsville was taken off in 1820, and parts of Jasper and Greenwood in 1827. Another portion was annexed to Troupsburgh
in 1818. It is bounded north by Howard and a small portion of Hornellsville, east by Cameron, south by Jasper and a small part of Greenwood,
and west by Hornellsville and Hartsville. Its surface is principally a hilly upland, broken by the deep valleys of the streams. Canisteo river flows eastward through the north part of the town in a valley of half a mile to a mile in width, surrounded by hills from four hundred to four hundred and fifty feet in height. Bennett's and Col. Bill's creeks flow from the south through deep, narrow valleys, bordered by steep hillsides, and empty in the river below Canisteo village. The soil is a clayey and gravelly loam, with rich alluvium in the valleys of the streams.

 
Town of Caton  On the formation of Steuben county, March 8, 1796, the tract of land now constituting the town of Caton and forming
the southwest comer town of the county, was designated as “Township No. I, in the First Range" of townships in said county. It remained as such until February 11, 184.0, at which time it took the name of "Wormley," agreeable to an act of the legislature passed March 28, 1839. All previous histories have given the date of the formation of the town of Wormley as March, 1829. During that year a post-office was established here and called Wormley, and Samuel Wormley was appointed postmaster. From this sprang the error which has found its way into all the histories of the county which have hitherto been published. In all official records it was invariably spoken of as "that part of the town of Painted Post known as township No. 1 in the first range of townships." It remained, as before stated, a part of Painted Post until February 11, 1840. To settle the dispute as regards the formation of the town, the writer has not only hunted up living witnesses of the fact, but has searched the session laws of the earlier days, and in those of 1859 found the following enactment, which is inserted as proof of the foregoing statements: "An act to erect the town of Wormley in Steuben county, passed March 28, I 839. The people of the state of New York, represented in senate and assembly do enact as follows: From and after the 1st Monday in February, 1840, all that part of the town of Painted Post, in the county of Steuben, being township “No.1” in the first range of townships in said county, shall constitute a new town of the name of Wormley, and the first town meeting for the election of town officers shall be held on the 2nd Tuesday of February next, at the house where Russell Stanton now resides.” In accordance with the foregoing enactment a meeting was held, and town officers elected on February 11, 1840. The town of Wormley was, however, short lived,
as we find by the following: "An act to change the name of the town of Worrnley, in the county of Steuben, passed April 3, 1840. The people of the state of New York represented in senate and assembly, do enact as follows: The name of the town of Wormley, in the county of Steuben, is hereby changed to the name of  'Caton,'* by which last name it shall hereafter be known and designated. This act shall take effect immediately.”
The foregoing proofs, which are official, show conclusively that the town of Wormley had no existence until February, 1840, and then passed away after a brief period of about sixty days, all histories to the contrary notwithstanding. 
Topography.-The surface of the town is elevated, and is unbroken by gorges or gullies. There is probably less broken land in the town than in any upland town in the county. The soil is mostly of a shaly loam and well adapted to pasturage. The surface was originally covered with a heavy growth of timber, that which stood in the vicinity of Caton Centre being hard wood and hemlock, while in the respective four corners of the town there was a heavy growth of pine. There are but few streams in the town, the larger of which are Barnards creek flowing north and emptying into the Chemung river below Corning; Birch creek, flowing eastward and emptying into Seeley creek, Cook's creek flowing westward into the Tioga river, Hendy creek emptying into the Chemung river near the old Fitch bridge, has its origin in this town.
Caton contains a population of I ,407,according to the census of 1890. In 1880 it contained 1,645 . The loss is mostly owing to the emigration
of the young men who have gone from the town to engage in more lucrative business than that of farming. The majority of them are found
in the cities of Corning and Elmira, where they have secured positions in various establishments and manufactories.
*Derived from Richard Caton, who, with Edward Carroll, of Carrollton, Md., one of the signers of the declaration of independence, was one of the original land owners.

 
Town of Cohocton is situated on the north border of the county west of the centre. It was formed from Bath and Dansville, June 18, 1812.
 A part of Avoca was taken off in 1843, and a part of Wayland in 1848. In 1874 an addition was made to the eastern part of the town from the town of Prattsburg. The surface is mostly a hilly upland separated into ridges by deep and narrow valleys. The principal streams are the Conhocton river, flowing southerly through the centre, and its tributaries. The valley of the Conhocton is rich and productive, and varies in width from a mile to a mile and a quarter. The soil is alluvium, mixed with clay and loam. A slaty and gravelly loam prevails chiefly on the uplands.
These uplands, such as Lent Hill and Potter Hill are among the best farming lands of the town. The only waste lands being along the steep declivities of the hills and ravines. The town is watered with many clear brooks and springs, and is well adapted to grain, fruit, grazing and dairy purposes. Potato growing is one of the chief industries of the town. The population in 1890 was 3,475.

 
Town of Corning embraces the territory that remained of the original township of Painted Post in 1852, in which year the name of the town was changed to Corning in honor of Erastus Corning, Sr., a distinguished citizen and merchant of Albany, N. Y. and the first president of the Corning Company which founded the prosperous city that now bears his name. This town also contains a "gore" of several hundredacres taken from the southeast corner of the town of Hornby and is township No. 2 in Range I of the county of Steuben. It is bounded on the north by
Hornby, east by the west line of Chemung county, south by Caton and by the town of Erwin on the west. The town contains 22,400 acres.
The city, 1,800 acres. The surface of the town is divided from northwest to southeast into two unequal upland portions by the valley of the Chemung river, the portion on the northeast side being- considerably larger and more valuable than are the uplands on the opposite side of the river. The principal streams emptying into the Chemung river on its northerlyside are the Borden, Post, Narrows and Winfield creeks; on the opposite side Monkey-run and Steel's creek are the chief streams. As an agricultural region this town is not above a general average of Steuben county. The first settlements within the present limits of the town weremade by Frederick Calkins, and Ephraim Patterson and his son Ichabod in 1789.

 
Town of Dansville, one of the original towns of Steuben county, was formed in March, 1796, and named in honor of Daniel P. Faulkner
, an influential citizen, familiarly known as "Captain Dan". Parts of Cohocton and Howard were taken off in 1812, a part of Wayland in 1848, 
and a part of Fremont in 1854. A portion of the town, including the village of Dansville, was annexed to Sparta, Livingston county, in 1822, and a part of Cohocton was re-annexed April 26, 1834. Dansville is the northern town upon the west border of the county. It is bounded north by a portion of Livingston county and Wayland, east by Wayland and Fremont,south by Hornellsville, and west by Allegany and Livingston counties. The surface of the town is a rolling upland, divided into ridges by the narrow valleys of the streamswhich flow both north and south into the two systems of waters which find their outlet in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Chesapeake Bay. The soil is sandy and gravelly loam in the east and north, and gravel underlaid by hardpan in the southwest. The population of this town in 1890 was 1,572. The portion of the town containing the population at the time of itsformation in 1796, was subsequently taken off. In the remaining portion their was no settlement until 1804, at which time Isaac Sterling settled half a mile east of Burns Station, near the foot of the hill, on the old Arkport and Dansvilie read. Samuel Gilson settled next north of Sterling the same season. At that time the road ran along the foot of the east hill, avoiding the shallow lake or marsh, which filled nearly the whole valley for a distance of three miles. It was at the outlet of this body of water that the "Arkport" of the early navigators was established.

 
Town of Erwin lies in the southeast part of the county, west of Corning, and was formerly township Xo. 2, of the Second Range, of the Phelps and Gorham Purchase. It was formed from the township of Painted Post, January 27, I 826. Lindley was taken off in 1837, and a part of Coming was annexed in 1856 . Its surface is about equally divided between high, rolling upland, and the low valleys of the streams. The summits
of the hills are from four hundred to six hundred feet above the valleys of the streams. The Tioga and Canisteo rivers unite near the southeast part of the town, and the Tioga and Conhocton near the eastern boundary of the town north of the center, forming the Chemung river. The valleys of these streams are from one to two miles wide, and are among the richest and most productive lands of the county. The soil upon the hills is a shaly and clayey loam, and in the valley it is a fine fertile alluvium. The population in 1890 was 1,883.

 
Town of Fremont * was formed from Hornellsville, Dansville, Wayland and Howard, November 17, 1854. It is an interior town lying northwest of the centre of the county. Its surface is a hilly upland, forming a part of the dividing ridge between the Conhocton and Canisteo
rivers. Its streams are small brooks. The soil is chiefly a shaly loam derived from the desintegration of the surface rocks. It is bounded on the
north by Dansville and Wayland, on the east by a small portion of Cohocton and by Howard, on the south by Howard and Hornellsville,
and on the west by Hornellsville and Dansville. It comprises for the most part, fine grazing lands, and good wheat and general farming land
is found in all parts of the town. The population according to the census of 1890 was 1,037.
*Named in honor of Gen. John C. Fremont.

 
Town of Greenwood was formed from Troupsburgh and Canisteo, January 24, 1827. The town of West Union was taken off in 1845,
and a part of Jasper was annexed in 1848. It is one of the western tier of towns, and is situated south of the centre. It is bounded north by Hartsville, east by Jasper, south by West Union and west by Allegany county. The surface is chiefly a rolling upland. The principal stream is Bennett's creek, which flows northerly through the east part of the town, in a valley surrounded by hills from four to six hundred feet in height. The soil is a gravelly and clayey loam. The population in 1890 was 1,306.

 
Town of Hartsville is located on the west border of the county, south of the centre, and is bounded north by Hornellsville, east by Canisteo, south by Greenwood and west by Allegany county. This town was formed from Hornellsville, February 7, 1844. The valley of
Bennett's creek extends along the east border, and Purdy creek flows east through the north part. The steep hillsides borderingthese streams
are from four to six hundred feet high.

 
Town of Hornby was formed from the old town of Painted Post,-now Corning-January 27, 1826. The town of Campbell was taken
off in 1831, and a portion was annexed to Orange, now in Schuyler county, April 11, 1842. It lies near the centre of the east border of the
county, bounded north by Schuyler county, east by a portion of Schuyler and Chemung counties, south by Corning and west by Campbell.  The town was named in honor of John Hornby an eminent English land holder, who with other English capitalists purchased that tract since known as the "Pulteney estate". The surface of the town is high and rolling, intersected by deep, narrow valleys, chiefly formed by Dry Run, and Post and Borden creeks. The first of these streams flows through the northwest part of the town, and joining Meads creek in Campbell, empties into the Conhocton in the township of Erwin. Post and Borden creeks empty into the Chemung river. The soil is of superior quality, being of a clayey and shaly loam. The population of this town in 1890, was 1,011. The first settlers in the town were Asa and Uriah Hash, from Otsego county, who settled in the north part of the town, known as "Nash settlement" in 1814.

 
Town of Hornellsville township is situated near the centre of the western boundary of the county and is bounded on the north by
Dansville and Fremont, on the east by Howard and Canisteo, on the south by Hartsville, and on the west by Allegany county. The original purchase of Hornellsville, which was formerly a part of Canisteo, was, no doubt, made upon the recommendations and report of Richard Crosby, Solomon Bennett, Capt. John Jamison and Uriah Stephens, who explored this section in 1788.

 
Town of Howard is an interior town of the county, located a little northwest of the centre. It was erected from Bath and Dansville, June
18, 1812. A part of Avoca was taken off in 1843, and a part of Fremont in 1854. It is bounded north by Fremont, Cohocton and Avoca, east
by Bath, south by Canisteo, and west by Hornellsville and a portion of Fremont. Its surface is mostly a rolling upland, forming a part of the
dividing ridge between the Conhocton and Canisteo rivers. In the northeast part of the town are two small ponds, the waters of which unite with creeks near that section of the town formerly known as Goff's Mills. The soil of this town is a clayey loam. At Howard Flats, though high, the soil is of a great depth. In a deep valley south of the flats the declivity of the hills shows the debris and outcropping of shale and slate. The streams are all small, and flow into the Conhocton and Canisteo rivers. The population of the town in 1890 was 1,934.

 
Town of Jasper was formed from Troupsburgh and Canisteo January 24, 1827, and a part was annexed to Greenwood in 1848. It is situated near the southwest corner of the county, bounded north by Canisteo, east by Cameron and Woodhull, south by Troupsburgh and west
by Greenwood. Its surface is a hilly and broken upland, the highest summits being nearly two thousand feet above tidewater. The streams are
small brooks, and the soil is a slaty, gravelly and clayey loam. The population of the town in 1890 was 1,891.

 
Town of Lindley was formed from Erwin, May 12 ,1837, and was named in honor of Col. Eleazer Lindsley , the original proprietor.
It lies upon the southern border of the county, east of the centre, and was "Township No. 1, of the Second Range." It is bounded north by
Erwin, east by Caton, south by the Pennsylvania state line, and west by the town of Tuscarora. The east and west parts are hilly uplands,
divided by the valley of the Tioga river, which is bounded by steep hillsides from four to six hundred feet high. The course of the Tioga is from south to north through the town, a little east of the centre. The soil upon the hills is a heavy, shaly loam, and in the valley, which is about a mile in width, a rich alluvium.

 
Town of Prattsburg is centrally situated upon the northern border of the county. It is bounded north by Naples, in Ontario county
and Italy in Yates county, east by Pulteney, south by Wheeler and Urbana, and west by Cohocton. The surface of the town is a hilly upland, broken by the valleys of several small streams, flowing in a southwesterly direction. The principal streams are Five Mile, Ten Mile and Twelve Mile creeks. The valley at Prattsburgh village is 1,400 feet above tide, and the hills are from three to four hundred feet higher. The soil is a
gravelly and clayey loam, adapted to pasturage and to the growth of cereals, fruit and vegetables. The population of Prattsburgh in 1890 was 2,173. This township originally constituted parts of  "Townships No. 6, in the Third and Fourth Ranges" of Phelps' and Gorham's purchase, and was bought by contract of the agent of the Pulteney estate in the year 1802, by Capt. Joel Pratt, of Columbia county, and William Root, of 
Albany county.

 
Town of Pulteney is situated on the west shore of Kueka Lake in the northeast corner of the county. It is bounded on the north by Jerusalem, in Yates county, east by Lake Keuka and on south by Urbana, and west by a portion of Urbana and the Town of Prattsburg. It was named in honor of Sir William Pulteney, the proprietor of the Pulteney estate. The town was formed from Bath, February 12, 1808. Prattsburgh was taken off in 18 I 3, and a part of Urbana in 1848. The surface is a rolling upland, from seven to nine hundred feet above the surface of the lake. The declivities along the lake are broken by numerous narrow ravines formed by small streams. The soil is chiefly a shaly and gravelly loam, and in some places near the lake, clay predominates. The first town meeting for the town of Pulteney was held at the house of Jesse Waldo, on
the first Tuesday in March, 1808. Uriel Chapin was chosen supervisor, and Aaron Bell town clerk. It was then "Voted, to build two pounds at
the expense of the town,one near the house of Shadrach Morris, the other in the centre of Pulteney Society. The population of the town,
according to the census of 1890, was 1,779, a gain of 119.

 
Town of Rathbone an interior township lying south of the centre of the county, bounded north by Cameron and Thurston, east by Addison,
south by Tuscarora and Woodhull, and west by Woodhull and Cameron. It was named for Gen. Ransom Rathbone who settled in the town in 1842, and who developed the first real business enterprise in the town. The upland is from three to four hundred feet above the valley. In some places naked and precipitous ledges of rock crop out on the sides of the declivities. The soil is chiefly a clayey and shaly loam, and in the valleys
a rich alluvium. The principal streams are the Canisteo river and a branch of Tuscarora creek. The town was formed March 28, 1850, and on May 6, a special election was held at the house of David A. Fulmer, for the election of town officers. William R. Rathbone was elected supervisor and George W. Young, town clerk. The population of this town in 1890 was 1,224.

 
Town of Thurston was formed from Cameron, February 28, 1844, and named in honor of William B. Thurston, a member of the society
of Friends, and a principal land owner. It is an interior town and lies a little southeast of the centre of the county. It is bounded north by the town
of Bath, east by Campbell, south by Addison and Rathbone, and west by Cameron. Its surface is chiefly a high, broken upland, forming a part of the dividing ridge between the Conhocton and the Canisteo rivers. The summits of the hills are from five to six hundred feet above the valleys. The principal streams are Stockden creek in the northwest, and Michigan or Otter creek in the south, flowing in deep, narrow ravines, bordered by steep hillsides. The soil is chiefly a shaly and gravelly loam. The population in 1890 was 1,112, a loss of one hundred and fifty-four since 1880.

 
Town of Troupsburg is situated upon the south border of the county, west of the centre, and is bounded north by Jasper, east by Woodhull, south by the state of Pennsylvania and west by West Union. It was named in honor of Robert Troup, agent for the Pulteney estate.
The town was formed from Middletown-now Addison- and Canisteo, February 12,1808. It was reduced somewhat in territory in 1827 by
taking off parts of Greenwood and Jasper, and in 1828 it was still further reduced by annexing a part to Woodhull. A portion of Canisteo was annexed in 1818. The soil is a slaty and clayey loam. The surface of the town consists principally of a hilly upland, broken by the deep valleys of small streams, the principal of which is Troups creek, flowing south. The highest summits are two thousand and five hundred feet above the sea, and are the most elevated portions of the county. The population of Troupsburgh in 1890 was 2,165.

 
Town of Tuscarora is situated on the southern border of the county, east of the centre, and was formed from the town of Addison,
December 13, 1859. It includes "Township No. I, of the Third Range" of Phelps and Gorham's purchase. It is bounded north by Rathbone and Addison, east by Lindley, south by the Pennsylvania state line, and west by Woodhull. The surface is a hilly upland, broken by the valley of the Tuscarora creek in the northwest part. The streams of the towns are small. The soil is chiefly a clayey loam, with gravel and alluvium along the valley of Tuscarora creek. The population in 1890 was 1,440.

 
Town of Urbana may claim among her sisters, without protest, the chief distinction for beauty. Rugged and precipitious hills,
forestcrowned, and broken by irregular ravines, and deep, romantic glens, characterize her incomparable landscape. Two features particularly famed for their natural loveliness are Pleasant Valley and Lake Keuka. Poetic minds, since that early period when the white man first invaded the forest depths and cast his eyes upon these scenes, have been moved with inspiration, and graceful pens have often traced in verse and prose the many lines of beauty that they bear. Only a few miles of the crystal lake, fed by mountain streams and by countless perpetual springs beneath its surface., lie within the borders of Urbana. But to the inhabitant whose windows open towards the constantly changing watery expanse it is ever a study and an attraction to the eye. The axe has hewn the primeval trees mostly from the slopes, and terraced vineyards have for the most part taken the places of the woods. Much of the valley is yet meadow-land, but the vines are finding a place in nearly every nook and corner, and
some day we shall see Pleasant Valley and the slopes of Lake Keuka as one vast vineyard.

 
Town of Wayland was formed from Cohocton and Dansville, April 12, 1848. In 1854 a portion of the township was taken off to form
the town of Fremont. It is the most northwestern town upon the north border of Steuben county, and is bounded north by Livingston county, on the east by Cohocton, on the south by Fremont and Dansville, and on the west by Dansville, and North Dansville, in Livingston county. The surface of the town is an upland, rolling in the north, and moderately hilly in the south, its highest summits being from sixteen to eighteen hundred feet above tide. Loon Lake and Mud Lake are situated in a valley in the southern part of the town. The outlet of the former is subterranean for
half a mile, and when it again appears on the surface is of sufficient size to form a valuable mill stream. In the north part of the town the soil is gravel and muck, and in the south a shaly loam. Valuable beds of marl are found here. The population in 1890 was 2,318.

 
Town of Wayne is situated upon Lake Keuka on the east border of the county. It was formed as Fredericktown, March 18, 1796, and
its name changed to Wayne, in honor of Gen.Anthony Wayne, on April 6, 1808. Reading was taken off in 1806, Orange in 18 I 3, and
Barrington and Tyrone in 1822. Reading and Orange have since been added to Schnyler county, and Barrington and Tyrone to Yates county. A part of the township of Wayne was annexed to Tyrone, April 17, 1854. The surface of the town is a rolling upland from four to five hundred feet high, forming a plateau of rich and well cultivated farms, and descending abruptly to the lake, on the west and north. The northern end of the town along the lake shore being opposite the highlands of Pulteney, and sheltered by them from the northwest and west winds, is particularly adapted to fruit, and contains some of the finest vineyards in the grape-growing section of the county. The soil is a slaty and gravelly loam, resting upon a sub-soil of hard-pan. Lake Waneta, lying upon the east border, is a beautiful sheet of clear water, three miles in length by half a mile in width. Latterly, it has been demonstrated that the town in the vicinity of this lake is as well adapted to the culture of grapes as that portion along Lake Keuka. In some seasons the fruit has ripened a week earlier at Lake Waneta. The population of the town of Wayne in 1890, was 902.

 
Town of West Union is situated in the southwest corner of the county. It was formed from Greenwood, April 25, 1845. The petition
that was circulated for the erection of this town, petitioned for the formation of a town to be called Green: but it was referred back to the petitioners with the information that there was already a township of that name in this state, in Chenango county. They then changed it to Union, which was also objectionable for the same reason, there being a town of that name in Broome county. The word West was then prefixed, and the bill was passed. The surface of the town of West Union is a broken and hilly upland, and its highest summits are from two thousand to two thousand, four hundred feet above tide-water. Bennett's creek is the principal stream, which flows north through the town near its centre. The election for the first officers in this town was held at the house of John Hauber, on the present site of Rexville village, May 6, 1845. The first ballot box was a sugar bucket with a slot cut in the cover. This is now in the possession of Sherman Hauver. David Sherman was elected supervisor,
and Moses Forbes town clerk. The population of West Union in 1890 was 1,159.

 
Town of Wheeler is an interior town lying northeast of the centre of the county, and is bounded north by Prattsburgh, east by Urbana, 
south by Bath and west by Avoca. It was formed from Bath and Prattsburgh, February 25, 1820, and was named in honor of Capt. Silas Wheeler. A part of Avoca was taken off in 1843, and a part of Urbana in 1839. Its surface is a high, rolling upland, broken by the valleys of Five Mile and Ten Mile creeks. The soil is a shaly and clayey loam, well adapted to grazing and tillage. The principal streams are the creeks above named and some small lateral tributaries. The population of the town of Wheeler in 1890 was 1,283.

 
Town of Woodhull is a central town upon the south border of the county, bounded north by Cameron and Rathbone, east by Tuscarora,
south by the Pennsylvania line, and west by Troupsburgh and Jasper. It was formed from the towns of Troupsburgh and Addison, February 18, 1828. A portion of Rathbone was taken off in 1856. The surface is a hilly upland; the soil a clayey and gravelly loam. The principal stream is Tuscarora creek, which flows north of the centre of the town in an easterly direction.


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